The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory, 1954
I feel this burn on a spiritual level.
Untitled by Nick Hyde (1971). From the book Visions (1975, published by Pomegranate).
fun statistics for adults!
“when I was a kid, I had no help with college tuition, I was hardworking and paid it all myself”
-Annual tuition for Yale, 1970: $2,550
-Annual tuition for Yale, 2014: $45,800
-Minimum Wage, 1970:…
Cells’ powerhouses were once energy parasites: Study upends current theories of how mitochondria began
Parasitic bacteria were the first cousins of the mitochondria that power cells in animals and plants — and first acted as energy parasites in those cells before becoming beneficial, according to a new University of Virginia study that used next-generation DNA sequencing technologies to decode the genomes of 18 bacteria that are close relatives of mitochondria.
The study appears this week in the online journal PLoS ONE, published by the Public Library of Science. It provides an alternative theory to two current theories of how simple bacterial cells were swallowed up by host cells and ultimately became mitochondria, the “powerhouse” organelles within virtually all eukaryotic cells — animal and plant cells that contain a nucleus and other features. Mitochondria power the cells by providing them with adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, considered by biologists to be the energy currency of life.
The origin of mitochondria began about 2 billion years ago and is one of the seminal events in the evolutionary history of life. However, little is known about the circumstances surrounding its origin, and that question is considered an enigma in modern biology.
"We believe this study has the potential to change the way we think about the event that led to mitochondria," said U.Va. biologist Martin Wu, the study’s lead author. "We are saying that the current theories — all claiming that the relationship between the bacteria and the host cell at the very beginning of the symbiosis was mutually beneficial — are likely wrong.
show me your face / august 2014
recent musings. from a couple months ago, I think. I’ve been incredibly busy, forgive me. u____u (lyrics by mirah)
i’m seeing mirah on thursday!!!!